Saturday, January 21, 2006

A reforma agrária na América Latina (II)

No meu post A reforma agrária na América Latina, escrevi que "apenas em dois paises da América Latina tinha havido reformas agrárias significativas: o México, depois da revolução de 1910-20 (aquela que costuma aparecer nos filmes, com o Pancho Villa, o Zapata, etc.); e, exactamente, a Bolivia, após a revolução de 1952".

Mas, se calhar, na Bolivia, a reforma agrária não foi tão significativa como tudo isso. Veja-se o artigo "Bolivia: the agrarian reform that wasn't":

"100 families control over 25 million hectares of land in Bolivia while 2 million campesino (farmer/peasant) families have, combined, access to 5 million hectares of land. In other words, the wealthiest 100 landowners possess five times more land then 2 million small landowners. (These figures do not include the at least 250,000 campesinos without land.)"


"After 52 years of agrarian reform, Bolivian agriculture is divided into two distinct tendencies: enormous latifundios (estates), vast territories in which only a small part is used for productive agriculture; and hundreds of thousands of tiny, over-cultivated properties owned by indigenous and/or campesino farmers. Despite the fact that campesino farmers occupy a much smaller portion of land, they have higher agricultural productivity and supply more food to the local economy than the latifundios"


"From 1953 to 1993, more than 26 million hectares of land were granted in the Oriente. However, of this land, more then 87.5% was given to the wealthiest (in terms of property ownership) half of recipients, while the remaining half received 12.5% of grants. Today, 55% of farm properties are squeezed into less the one percent of cultivated land."

"It is important to remember that almost all of the "unowned" land that was granted was in fact inhabited by indigenous populations. In effect, the land reform program was used by the dominant classes to extend their holdings and develop interests in commercial agriculture and modern ranching. In the years of the Banzer dictatorship (1971-1978), this cronyism reached staggering proportions—116, 647 hectares granted to the Antelo family, 96,874 hectares granted to the Gutierrez family, 115,646 hectares granted to the Elsner family (plus 73,690 hectares given individually to Guillermo Bauer Elsner), etc..."

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